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NCERT & NADARS!


The following passages are excerpted from the NCERT book prescribed for the IX class students for the subject of History. This passage has recently been seen by some of the Nadars as a mischievous statement aimed at tarnishing their image. Let us read the following passages before seeing it in the right perspective.

Caste Conflict and Dress Change
Though there were no formal sumptuary laws as in Europe, India
had its own strict social codes of food and dress. The caste system
clearly defined what subordinate and dominant caste Hindus should
wear, eat, etc., and these codes had the force of law. Changes in
clothing styles that threatened these norms therefore often created
violent social reactions.
In May 1822, women of the Shanar caste were attacked by uppercaste
Nairs in public places in the southern princely state of
Travancore, for wearing a cloth across their upper bodies. Over
subsequent decades, a violent conflict over dress codes ensued.
The Shanars (also called Nadars) were a community of toddy tappers
who migrated to southern Travancore to work under Nair landlords.
As they were considered a ‘subordinate caste’, they were prohibited
from using umbrellas and wearing shoes or golden ornaments. Men
and women were also expected to follow the local custom of never
covering their upper bodies before the upper castes.
Under the influence of Christian missions, Shanar women converts
began in the 1820s to wear tailored blouses and cloths to cover
themselves like the upper castes. Soon Nairs, one of the upper castes
of the region, attacked these women in public places and tore off
their upper cloths. Complaints were also filed in court against this
dress change, especially since Shanars were also refusing to render
free labour for the upper castes.
At first, the Government of Travancore issued a proclamation in
1829 ordering Shanar women ‘to abstain in future from covering the
upper parts of the body.’ But this did not prevent Shanar Christian
women, and even Shanar Hindus, from adopting the blouse and
upper cloth.
The abolition of slavery in Travancore in 1855 led to even more
frustration among the upper castes who felt they were losing control.
In October 1859, riots broke out as Shanar women were attacked in
the marketplace and stripped of their upper cloths. Houses were looted
and chapels burned. Finally, the government issued another
proclamation permitting Shanar women, whether Christian or Hindu,
to wear a jacket, or cover their upper bodies ‘in any manner whatever,
but not like the women of high caste’. (written by JANAKI NAIR for NCERT)

The only part appearing which has the appearance of FACTS but PROJECTS the community of NADARS through the eyes of a Keralite is not as much demeaning as MISLEADING. I believe that none needs to be offended about one’s past if that part of the past was beyond the control of that person. However, when we write HISTORY, fidelity to facts is the soul of all history writing. Otherwise, HISTORY deteriorates to either paeans  or treading down a person or community or country! The following lines which appear in the text book is a verisimilitude devoid of the soul of the truth:-

The Shanars (also called Nadars) were a community of toddy tappers
who migrated to southern Travancore to work under Nair landlords.

There are three points made which are likely to lead the tender minds to make the following inferences:-

That Shanars/ Nadars were Toddy tappers by profession

That ALL Shanars/Nadars migrated to Travancore; and

That Shanars/Nadars all went to Travancore to work under Nair landlords!

First of all i like to state that the term SHANARS were considered to be derogatory and a Government Order was issued signifying that all Shanars are to be called as Nadars (Law (General) Department G.O. No. 785, 7th July 1921 issued by the order of the Governor-in-Council and signed by R. Ramachandra Rao, Secretary to the Govt. of Madras). Honestly, just as Mae West rightly said A MAN IS WHAT A MAN DOES, a community’s strength comes out of what it DOES and not because of the name!

This happened sometime in 1921, therefore the use of Shanars in the main and Nadars in brackets CANNOT HAVE THE SANCTION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA or THE GOVERNMENT OF TAMIL NADU. So to use this word SHANARS instead of NADARS is highly mischievous and has been influenced by a prime ignoramus who is not familiar with the sanctity of Government orders! To allow this to permeate into curriculum at the school level is nothing but mischief!

Regarding the fact that Nadars were a community of toddy tappers, it is a well known fact that Nadars lived of the plamyra produce, which included nungu, karupatti, padhaneer, panagkizhangu, panampazham, thatching of roofs with the palm leaves and making handicraft items with the palm leaves. So to limit it to toddy tapping, which the community discontinued consciously because of the social evils associated therewith is VERISIMILITUDE.

Nadars did not migrate to Travancore, only a miniscule percentage of Nadars from the Southern districts of the present day Theni, Ramnad, Thoothukudi, Madurai, Virudhunagar & Tirunelvelli migrated to the Travancore state to escape the drought and famine in these dry districts. Like in any migration, the Nadars who migrated to Travancore, over a period of time forgot their trade (there were no palmyra trees in Travancore, only coconut trees were aplenty and the Ezhavas were already tending to it) and deteriorated to the serving class, just like Joseph’s brethren and their children deteriorated into slaves in the land of Egypt! After all Egyptians made the rules and the Jews were made to follow the rules under a theory of superiority that the Egyptians were superior to the pastoral Jews!

In any case the demographics of Tamil Nadu proves that Nadars form 12% of the population of 6.5 crores, which translates to 78 lakh Nadars to the 1% Nadars of the present day Kerala, which would be a mere 3 lakhs! To base a history book on the migrant population of a particular community is not only false but mischievous! A crocodile should be seen in the ecosystem in which it has thrived. The croc may need the sand for hatching its eggs, but its LIFE is in the marshes and the water. Merely because a cheetah plays around with a croc on land, by no means is the croc weak. It is the terrain which matters, the same croc in a marsh or water would shred the cheetah and swirl it in shreds!

The last line shows as if the Nadars were very keen on working only for the Nair landlords. It so happened that the predominant land holding community in the erstwhile Travancore state , besides the royal family, were the Namboothiris, as a community. These Namboothiris handed over the lands to the Nairs (for what reason pl read Thurston) for cultivation and they in turn got the land cultivated on behalf of the Namboothiris. So, i am pretty sure that Nadars did not choose Nairs as their landlords, but they went as ryots to the tenants, who were Nairs also. If one were to disbelieve my story, then all one has to do is read up the community called NAYARS in volume IV of THE CASTES AND TRIBES OF SOUTHERN INDIA by Edgar Thurston. Upon reading, one will be able to realize that some of the polyandry practices practised by certain communities of Travancore were not only deplorable, but shamefully unutterable! The women considered the Portuguese sailors who stepped on to the shores of Travancore, to sow their wild oats, to be of a HIGH CASTE! So much for the caste systems which were prevalent in the then Travancore state.

Nadars had always followed the patrilineal system as against the Travancore people (except Namboothiris-who protected their women so zealously that they never wanted to be left with a cuckoo in their nest) who followed the matrilineal system. So essentially, the Nadars were a misfit in that system with their rigid mores, which was more suited to the Tamil terrain!

To conclude that Nadars are to be judged by the Travancore Nadars is nothing but the feverish fulminations of the communities which are unable to stomach the sustained growth and progressive ways adopted by the Nadars of Tamil Nadu. To make the Nadars of Travancore the bench mark for Nadars appears to be the work of an ignoramus, who has exposure only to the Travancore history with no understanding of a community which has shown growth by its OWN EFFORTS and not by stealing the LABOUR AND WEALTH in the name of DIVINE RIGHT or BEING AN ILLEGITIMATE OFFSPRING OF A KING!

The most important part of History is WHEN DO WE PEG OUR HISTORY? In any community’s Life there are bound to be ups and downs and if the nadir is made the point of that community’s history, then it smacks of BIAS. Do we judge the Jews by what they were when they were slaves in Egypt? Do we judge the history of India when we were under the British? NAY. We judge the people BY WHAT THEY DID WHEN THEY HAD THEIR OWN LAND AND THE FREEDOM OF CHOICE. If we look for denigrating history, I am sure there would not be a single community which could boast of an uninterrupted history of only sovereignty, progress and prosperity!

One should read the book called INDIA’S NEW CAPITALISTS by a Malayali HARISH DAMODARAN (grandson of EMS Namboodripad!) to see the steep growth of a community through hard work.

It is nice to believe in MYTHS and feel superior, but when the CANNONS are out, the myth believers would be stunned like the Ibrahim Lodi’s army in front of Babur! Let us get REAL and teach our children the FACTS, if we cannot stomach the present day truths!

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Comments on: "NCERT & NADARS!" (18)

  1. Hi Movid:

    I accidentally read a part of this story in a Tamil daily, but was not aware of the full story until I saw your blog. Thank you.

    I wonder why venomous creatures are allowed to pen books for children. They are misfits in modern society and dangerous to the integrity of India, so must be STRIPPED off their jobs.

    Regards,

  2. Nudity and forced Nudity was brought to Kerala when Nairs came to Kerala. Nairs are not indigenous to Kerala but descend from the Bunt or Bantar of Kerala. They are not Dravidians but Nagas from Nepal. Karnatakas kings had the habit of bringing Slaves (Buntar) from Nepal ie Ahichatram in Uttarkhand (Grama Paddathi, Keralolpathi and Keralamahatmiyam). These Buntar were primitive Nepalese people who followed Matriarchy Polyandry and were Naked except a loin cloth. The Buntaru community (Nairs and Bunts) were heridtarily bonded people who were not allowed to have families hence a system of Matriarchy existed among them. Kerala did not have the detestable habits such as Polyandry leanding to Matriarchy and Nakedness prior to the invasion of Malik Kafur, General of Delhi Sulthanate in 1310. At 1310 all the Dravidian kingdoms and Tamil Kingdoms came to an end. Kerala used to be ruled by Villavar people and their king Villavar Kon king otherwise called Cheraman perumal. Nadalvar or Nadar is a title of the Villavar aristocracy which ruled the Dravidian tripatrite Tamil Kingdoms Chera Chola and Pandyan Kingdoms. The ancient Tamil civilization of Kerala ( Keralam in ancient Tamil means Cocoanut country). Most of the Villavar people in South India had Cocoanut and Palm cultivation and Tapping of palm was a major occupation. There is absolutely no stigma attached to the Palm climbing in the ancient or middle Tamil kingdoms. Kerala was under the rule of Pandyan kingdom at 1310 when Delhis attack came. Nadars had been the rulers of Pandyan kingdom in some point of time. The Chera Pandyan and Chola Kingdoms are advanced and cultured kingdoms . Giant stone Temples built by the Tamil Villavar Nadalvar kings are found through out Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Most of them were Hindu but many were Jain and Buddhist temples. Nadars are the remnants of the old Tamil people called Villavars. Malayali Nadars also belong to the same Tamil aristocracy called Nadalvar.

    After the attack of Malik Kafu Nairs (Bunts) suddenly appeared in the Kerala History. In this war of 1310 Tamil Kings of Villavar origin were defeated by the Delhi armies and a bunch of Nepalese Bunts from Tulunadu were planted in Kerala. Bunt/Nairs practiced Matriarchy and their subcastes Nayara, Menava Kuruba and Samantha hitherto found only in Tulunadu/ Karnataka suddenlly appeared in Kerala in the fourteenth century. In other words a group of Nepalese Bonded slave warriors from Karnataka joined the invading forces of Delhis Malik Kafur against their Dravidian masters.

    Kerala was divided into four parts and the Bunt/Nairs people of Nepalese Naga stock started ruling it. Kannur, Calicut, Cochin and Trivandrum are the four principalities where Matriarchal kingdoms were formed by Nair/Bunts. The Nair feudal aristocracy called themselves Mada Nambi after the Ahichatra (Aixhatra madasthana ) in the Indo Nepalese border. Their kings called themselves Samantha (equal to Kshatriya) but Nambudiri written Keralolpathy calles them Sudras.
    Thus Kerala was under the clutches of Nude Nepalese rulers in the fourteenth century and Kerala sank into a dark age. For more than six hundred years a barbaric rule was Kept in Kerala by the Delhis Sultahanate and European colonialism ie Portuguese, Dutch and British.

    The indigenous Dravidian Tamil people of Kerala ie Villavar and Meenavar were converted by the Portuguese into Christianity. But the Portuguese Mestizos and Syrian immigrants dominated this community so the Tamil ancestry was forgotten. Many of the Portuguese printed Christian books from Ambalakatta near Cochin, Thalassery and Quilon were in Tamil (Copenhagen copy of flos Sanctorum 1680).

    European colonialism not only converted the Villavar Nadalvar Panickar of old Tamil route to Christianity but destroyed their language ie Malayanma or Malayalam Tamil or Lingua Malabar Tamul. Vallikada Panicker was the Nadar General who led the Vadakkumkur (Vaikkom) Kingdom againts the Samantha Nair (Marthanda Varma) ruled Travancore. Thoug Vallikada Panickkar was supported by the Dutch Marthanda Varma won the war with the help of British. Vallikada Panickar was invited to Marthanda Varmas Durbar where he described himself as Nayaru Mootha Panickar (Panickar a Pandyan title) . He meant that he was a Nadappanickar who had an ancestry much more ancient than any Nair.
    Nadars traditionally practiced Martial arts ie Southern Kalari Payattu.
    Marthanda Varma himself was saved by a Nadar warrior and his army called Branthan Chanan (Mad Chanan) alias Anantha Padmanaban Nadar. Sanskrit books written in the same period calles Branthan Chanan as Jalman. Many books written durnig Marthanda Varmas period mention the miltary traditon of Nadars. Vaila Thampy Kunju Thambi Kathai Padal written in mid 1740 mentions that numerous families of Nadanmar and Nadappanikkanmar were serving Marthandavarma and his rivals ie Pappu Thambi and Raman Thambi as Elite protection force of Knights.

    The degradation of Nadars came when Marthandavarma rebult the Padmanabaswami temple originally consecrecated by Nedumchadya Pandyan in 789 AD. Marthandavarma brought stones from Nepals Gandaki river basin to build this new temple in 1740.

    When Tipu Sultan attacked and defeated the Samantha kindoms of Calicut and Cannore in 1789 with a small force of 12000 soldiers (4000 calvalry and 8000 foot soldiers) there was an exodus of Nairs to Travancore. Most of the defeated Samudiri and Kolathiris armies (each had 20000 strong armies ) migrated to Trivandrum.. After 1789 Nairs were the majority community in Travancore and the attacks against the Nadars started.

    The Attingal Queen did not cover her breasts when Nieuhof visited Kerala in 1692 so are the Nair ladies.

    The Nairs had forced Nudity in a previously well dressed community of Dravidian Villavar Nadar people. Most of the Dravidian women of old Tamil roots were forced to remain indoors in this period. Even after the Nair ladies started covering their upper part of body the Attingal queen did not allow others to cover their bodies. Such barbarity was supported by the British Diwans who were the defacto rulers in the 19th century.

    British promoted the Tulu writing system used by the Nairs and Nambudiris in the 19th century thereby destroying all the earlier books written in Malayanma.

    British helped Nairs suppress the indigenous Villavar people who are atleast there in Kerala for about ten thousand years. British even claimed that Nadars / Villavars are not indigenous. British also claimed that the Mestizo Christians existed in ancient Tamil Nadu in the Sangham age and they were of Nambudiri stock !!! ( Sangham era literature never mentioned Christianity). Thus Briiths were promoting Christianity with Mestizo tradition on one hand and on the other hand they were strange and Barbaric Nepalese customs such as Polyandry, Matriarchy and Nudity. Starting from 1310 Kerala had barbaric Nepalese kingdoms which promoted these. In this Matriarchal era Paternity cant be established because women courted multiple partners and siblings could have multiple fathers. Kerala had to endure this era because the Dravidian people could not oppose Delhi and Europeans simultaneously.

    When Portuguese arrived at Kerala the Samantha Kings and their Nayar armies had only loin cloth and the women naked with only a small cloth in the waist.

    http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1443370&page=3

    when Nieuhof met the Queen of Quilon in 1692 she did not cover her breasts and a thin cloth was loosly hanging from her shoulders.

    http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1700_1799/malabar/drawings/drawings.html

    As the wealth and power of Nair/Bunt kingdoms in Kerala rose in the British period the last Travancore king dressed almost like Prince of Wales.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chithira_Thirunal_Balarama_Varma

    Anybody can compare the amazing progress the Nair/Bunt Smantha Kings had in the five hundred years of European colonialism .
    As the European colonialism made them immensely rich the women started covering their bodies in the 19th century. But Nairs prevented the large indigenous Dravidian population covering their bodies in the early 19th century.Pandyan People dressed in Silk prior to their defeat in 1310. Attingal Rani in 1828 went to the extent of cutting off the breasts of women who dared to cover their breasts. A woman who had visited France and when she returned to Kerala with her breast coverd the Attingal Rani ordered to mutilate the lady by cutting off of her breasts. Worst of all Dravidians had to pay a breast tax also.

    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=Be3PCvzf-BYC&pg=PA792&lpg=PA792&dq=Mulakkaram+++A+social+history&source=bl&ots=9j6qUhnhDi&sig=xFTeBXy2hERf9DWKhM_8QdlN63c&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wR-xUM3SBsrTrQfHqoFI&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Mulakkaram%20%20%20&f=false
    .
    Thus European colonialism promoted a primitive Barbaric regimen in Kerala. The Magnificient era of Dravidian Kings were gone and a Barbaric Nepalese tribe was ruling over Kerala. The ancient Tamils cherished Chastitiy. Ancient Villavar Tamil King who ruled over a vast kingdom up to Himalayas Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan built the temple for Godess Kannaki (Kodungaloor Bhagavathi temple). Kannaki was known for her devotion to her husband and Chastity. Ancient Tamils adored Chastity of their women. The Sangham literature portray a highly civilized Tamil society with a Moral code of conduct in the ancient times.
    Until 1310 Kerala was ruled by Villavar Nadalvar people. Chera king himself was called Villavar Kon. At 1310 when Delhi Sulthanate sent a huge army under Malik kafur Kerala was ruled by Pandyan Kingdom and the state language was Tamil.

    At this invasion a group of Bunt/Nairs who had been brought from Uttranchal at the Indo Nepalese border to Karnataka to serve the Dravidian kingdoms as slave warriors (Buntaru) joined the Delhi armies . Kerala was given to Nepalese tribe of Bunts after 1310. Various subcastes of Tulu Bunt community became masters of Kerala after this period. Samantha, Nayara, Menava Maraalu and Kuruba were the Bunt sub castes which were found in Kerala in the latter days.
    All the indigenous Dravidian Tamil Villavar people were forced to occupy a lower level. For six hundred years Kerala a had a Barbaric Nepales regime which promoted Polyandry Matriarchy and Nudity. Familes did not exist among the Matriarchal people as the females courted numerous males. Paternity could not be established. Siblings could have different fathers.
    European colonialism promoted the Bunt/Nairs in Kerala along with Christianity.

    When Portuguese arrived at Kerala the Samantha Kings and their Nayar armies had only loin cloth and the women naked with only a small cloth in the waist.
    http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1443370&page=3


    when Nieuhof met the Queen of Quilon in 1692 she did not cover her breasts and a thin cloth was loosly hanging from her shoulders.
    http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00routesdata/1700_1799/malabar/drawings/drawings.html
    As the wealth and power of Nair/Bunt kingdoms in Kerala rose in the British period the last Travancore king dressed almost like Prince of Wales.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chithira_Thirunal_Balarama_Varma
    Anybody can compare the amazing progress the Nair/Bunt Smantha Kings had in the five hundred years of European colonialism .
    As the European colonialism made them immensely rich the women started covering their bodies in the 19th century. But Nairs prevented the large indigenous Dravidian population covering their bodies in the early 19th century.Pandyan People dressed in Silk prior to their defeat in 1310. Attingal Rani in 1828 went to the extent of cutting off the breasts of women who dared to cover their breasts. A woman who had visited France and when she returned to Kerala with her breast coverd the Attingal Rani ordered to mutilate the lady by cutting off of her breasts. Worst of all Dravidians had to pay a breast tax also.
    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=Be3PCvzf-BYC&pg=PA792&lpg=PA792&dq=Mulakkaram+++A+social+history&source=bl&ots=9j6qUhnhDi&sig=xFTeBXy2hERf9DWKhM_8QdlN63c&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wR-xUM3SBsrTrQfHqoFI&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Mulakkaram%20%20%20&f=false
    .
    Thus European colonialism promoted a primitive Barbaric regimen in Kerala. The Magnificient era of Dravidian Kings were gone and a Barbaric Nepalese tribe was ruling over Kerala. The ancient Tamils cherished Chastitiy. Ancient Villavar Tamil King who ruled over a vast kingdom up to Himalayas Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan built the temple for Godess Kannaki (Kodungaloor Bhagavathi temple). Kannaki was known for her devotion to her husband and Chastity. Ancient Tamils adored Chastity of their women. The Sangham literature portray a highly civilized Tamil society with a Moral code of conduct in the ancient times.
    But in the Barbaric period when Nair/Bunt ruled Kerala Polyandry existed and families did not exist and Matriarchy was promoted.All the ten thousand years of traditions were lost in the same period. Now the American Neo-colonialism is not much different from Portuguese, Dutch and British.
    The recent NCERT books had projected that Nadars were aliens who migrated to Travancore to work in palm fields. Each and every Keralas temples inscriptions in Tamil inscribed by the Villavar Chera ancestors of Nadars are present. The Bow and Arrow insignia the Royal emblem of Villavr people also found there. Kerala had been a Tamil country until recently. This fact is completely hidden in these text books. Nadars both Malayali Nadars and Tamil Nadars descend from ancient Tamil aristocracy of the Tripartitite Tamil Kingdoms Chera (Kerala) Chola (Northern Tamil Nadu and Andhra) and Pandya (Southern Tamil Nadu and Southern Kerala) kingdoms. At 1310 whole of Tamil Nadu Kerala and Northern Sri Lanka was ruled by Pandyan Kingdom.

    The worst period in the Kerala history could be between 1800 to `1858 when British Diwans were ruling Kerala with the help of Madras Brahmins and also Syrian Christians such as Thachil Mathu Tharakan. All with Portuguese and middle Eastern blood could declare themselves to be Nambudiris .
    Lord Mecaulay and Monroe were playing a double role. While the British missionaries were converting Nadars to Christianity the British did nothing to prevent the attack on Nadar women.
    Non Dravidians called themselves Savarnas in that time and held high status. It is not only Nadars but all the indigenous Dravidian people were affected by the British colonialism.
    Bitish promoted Tulu writing system of Nairs and Nambudiris and banned the Malayanma which was then written using Tamil script. All the Keralas literature written in Malayanma (Lingua Malabar Tamul or Malayalam Tamil) was lost.
    Kerala had a much advanced civilization ie Pandyan kingdom of Tamils before 1310. The Sangham literature describe the ancient Tamil people as fully dressed people often in Silks. The Villavar Nadalvar people had been the rulers of these Tamil Kingdoms. Even though the caste system had been in the Tamil Kingdoms prior to 1310 the Villavars were the highest caste in that era. The Chera kings themselves called themselves Villavar Kon. The fish emblem of the Pandyans and Bow and Arrow emblem of Villavar Cheras are inscribed in most of the temples they built. Most of the temples found in Kerala are not built by the Nairs but the ancestors of Villavar/Nadalvar people.
    Nairs simply occupied the temples built by the Tamil Pandyan and Chera rulers. Nairs are not Tamils or Dravidians but a Nepalese Naga tribe which travelled through Tulunadu to Kerala.Bunt/Nairs had been brought to South India to serve the Karnatakas armies as slave warriors and servants. Bunt/Nairs were hereditary slaves and were not allowed hence a system of Matriarchy existed among them. The Newar architecture dominated Kerala in the latterdays.
    King Nedumchadaya Pandyan, a Nadar ancestor converted an ancient Jain temple at Trivandrum to Vaishnavite temple when he consecrated the Padmanabha idol in it in 789 AD. When Nedumchadaya Pandyan married a princess from Malwa in North who was a Vaishnavaite the king himself became a Vaishnavaite.
    But after 1310 a completely unrelated Naga Bunt/Nairs occupied Kerala after the Turkish invasion. The Delhi Sulthanate protected this regime. Between 1206 to 1526 the Delhi Sulthanate ruled India and the Dravidians were kept out of power in that area and a decrepit Nepalese tribe earned Kerala without much effort.
    Portuguese who arrived in 1498 and the Dutch who came in 1660 supported Cochin kings with their Christian army.
    Marthanda Varma demolished the ancient Gopuram of Padmanabhaswamy temple and he rebuilt it with stones brought from the banks of Gandaki river in Nepal in 1740.

    Nadar ( Nadalvar Nadappanickar/Villavar } were not allowed in those temples whose Pandyan and Chera Villavar ancestors had built in the earlier era. European researchers claimed that Christianity and Nambudiris existed in ancient Kerala. European researchers such as Logan proposed Nadars/Villavars did not exist in Kerala and were recent entry in Kerala. Bishop Caldwell suggested that Nadars might have come from Sri Lanka.
    Another propaganda by British was that Nadars were associated with Toddy tapping. This is a deliberated propaganda as hardly less than twenty percent of Nadars actually were involved in palm industry. Kerala and Tamil Nadu are Coconut and Palm rich countries. Coconut and Palm related profession is ancient and had no stigma attached to it prior to the Non-Dravidian arrival in the fourteenth century.
    Kerala was a country rich in coconuts. Kera means Coconut and Alam means Land in ancient Tamil. Thus the word Keralam means Coconut Land. Nadar meant the Lords of the land. Similarly when Sri Lanka was under Pandyan rule a group of Nadars who migrated to Sri Lanka from Madurai are still known as Durave. (Durai in ancient Tamil meant Lord) . A Pandyan king who ruled Sri Lanka in the second century BC has the name Panaya Mara (Panaya =Palm Tree Mara= Pandyan King ).
    The ruins of ancient Korkai where Nadars Pandyan ancestors ruled before ten thousand years are still visible. Korkai and and Tenkasi the ancient capitals of Pandyan Kingdom still surrounded by Palm trees.
    Nadars are still proud of their ten thousand year old Pandyan, and Dravidian heritage.

    But in the Barbaric period when Nair/Bunt ruled Kerala Polyandry existed and families did not exist and Matriarchy was promoted.All the ten thousand years of traditions of kerala were lost in the same period. All the literature written in Malayanma was also lost.
    Tulu Script popularised by the British is used to write modern Malayalam. A Malayalee cant read Malayanma, his ancestral language because British banned it.

    Now the American Neo-colonialism is not much different from Portuguese, Dutch and British.
    The recent NCERT books had projected that Nadars were aliens who migrated to Travancore to work in palm fields. Each and every Keralas temples inscriptions in Tamil inscribed by the Villavar Chera ancestors of Nadars are present. The Bow and Arrow insignia the Royal emblem of Villavr people also found there. Kerala had been a Tamil country until recently. This fact is completely hidden in these text books. Nadars both Malayali Nadars and Tamil Nadars descend from ancient Tamil aristocracy of the Tripartitite Tamil Kingdoms Chera (Kerala) Chola (Northern Tamil Nadu and Andhra) and Pandya (Southern Tamil Nadu and Southern Kerala) kingdoms. At 1310 whole of Tamil Nadu Kerala and Northern Sri Lanka was ruled by Pandyan Kingdom.

    All the communities in Kerala were affected during the Barbarian era in Kerala 1310 to 1930 AD not only Nadars. The Pandyan and Cheran Temples were occupied by the Bunt/Nairs in that era and old Villavar people were denied access. The real progress of Keralaites came only after 1947 when British were gone..

    • This blogger is not aware of the source from which Villavan has written this ‘history’. In any case, i would request Villavan to cite the sources so that the readers could benefit. This blogger does not subscribe to any of the views/things stated in Villavan’s comment. The whole write-up seems more like fiction of Amish Tripathy! But seems a self-redeeming story line! Thanks.

  3. Of course. The cock and bull story concocted by the Portuguese priests that St.Thomas came to India and converted Nambudiris would appear more realistic to all the Nadar Christians. Christianity did not exist in ancient Tamil Nadu. Neither Syrian Christians or Nambudiris during the Sangam age. The Europeans are fooling you.
    St.Thomas did indeed come to India to Taxila then ruled by a Indo-Parthian king called Gondophares. St. Thomas was martyred by a King called Misdeus who ruled a kingdom between Euphrates and Tigris. King Misdeus could be of Greeko Persian ethnicity. Princess Mygdonia is mentioned in the Acts of Thomas written by Jewish poet Bardesan in the second century AD.

    http://gnosis.org/library/actthom.htm

    Christianity was not a know religeon during the Sangham era. None of the Indians ever heard of it in the ancient times.

    First ever mention of Christians (not Christianity) was in the 9th century Kollam in the Tharisapalli plates.

    The Nasrani Mappillas come to Kerala much latter from Persia Iraq and Palestine only after 800 AD.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tharisapalli_plates

    Tharisapalli plates issued by the Tamil Ay King Ayyandikal Thiruvadikal to Mar Sapir Easo in the year 849 AD at Quilon.The signatories have signed in Hebrew Pahlavi and Kufic (Palestinian) languages indicating their origin.

    When the Turkish Sulthanate was established at Delhi in 1206 there was an increased migration of these middle eastern Christians to Kerala seeking Pepper. Since these Christians had a tendency to marry local girls they were called Mappilla Christians or Nasrani Mappilla. These Nasrani Mappillas (Christian Son-in-Laws) are of middle eastern origin and might have been converted by Saint Thomas at their home land ie Syria Antioch (Turkey).

    Between 1200 to 1498 when the Portuguese came these Persian Speaking Nestorian Christians were found in all the port cities where Arab ships landed ie Kollam and Kayal Pattinam and Madras which was the southrnmost outpost of the Delhis Turkish empire. A Nestorian priest called Mar Jacob of Angamaly invited the Portuguese to India (Lisbon papers ) Sanjay Subrahmanyam, “The Career and Legend of Vasco da Gama”, p.182, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997

    These Persian speaking Nasrani Mappillas had a Bishop at Cochin. Mar Jacob a Bishop at Angamaly invited the Portuguese by sending a letter to Ferdinand and Isabella.

    The Portuguese soon created a Mestizo community at Cochin which sided with the Tulu tribes which practised and had become dominant after the invasion of Malik Kafur in 1310 AD.

    The Mestizos had four sub groups. ie Mestizo (mixed indian and Portuguese ethnicity) Castizo (mostly European ancestry) and Topazi (mixed but mostly Indian ancestry).

    Fort Cochin in Kerala, 1750-1830: The Social Condition of a Dutch Community …
    by Anjana Singh

    Portuguese actually created the Saint Thomas myth to authenticate their claims.
    These Portuguese Mestizos might have used a language called Lingua Malabar Tamul. Lingua Malabar Tamul had alternate lines Portuguese and Tamil like Malayanma.
    The language of Kerala was Tamil in that era.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lingua_Malabar_Tamul

    http://tidsskrift.dk/index.php/fundogforskning/article/view/1298/2076

    The Portuguese converted the indigenous Villavar people and established a Mestizo army under Vallikkada Panicker a Nadappanickar who led the Portuguese armies. Vallikkada Panicker belonged to Kavana near Moovattupuzha. Vallikkada Panicker worshipped Valli the family goddess of Nadars.

    http://expert-eyes.org/palli/panicker.html

    Vallikada Panickars were the Generals of the Portuguese army. The last Vallikada Panicker led the Dutch armies against Marthanda Varma in the 1740s.

    Portuguese initially pretended to protect the Villavar Nadalvar temples. But soon they converted them to Christianity. A Villavar Vattom Kingdom existed at Cochin possibly at Kodungaloor. But once they converted the Villavar Vattom King they abandoned him.

    The Portuguese aristocracy initially pretended to protect the Temples of the Villavar people against their Tulu rivals.

    http://www.himalmag.com/component/content/article/5131-lost-rulers-of-the-malabar-coast.html

    Felipe Perestrelo Mesqita was a Portuguese aristocrat who married a Natover girl of indigenous stock ie Nadavar.
    The Nadavar woman was married by the Portuguese prince who initially became the School Master at her School and was the protector of her temple. But soon Felipe Perestrelo Da Mesquita converted the Nadavar lady and then she assumed the Portuguese name Dona Beatriz Natover. Her tombstone is still there at Thrissur museum.

    (The Nadalvar title and its variants Nadavar Nadava Nadappanickan Nadakkamar and Nadan were Pandian titles.)

    All the Dravidians should read their own history. All the Temples in Kerala and Tamil Nadu were built by the temples of Tamil Villavar kings Pandyan(Enathy Rayar, Vanathy Rayar Maran ). The Chera kings called himself Villavar Kon. Nadars are of Villavar stock. Nadalvar is a title of Villavar aristocrats.
    Kerala and Tamil Nadu used to be Tamil states ruled by Nadars and their related castes.
    Nadar Christians should read Sangham literature especially Chilappathikaram. They should read the Tulunadu Gramapaddathi which mentions the migration of Naga Bunts from Ahichatra to Tulunadu on the invitation of Kadamba king Mayuravarma in 345 AD. The Nagas who were brought to Karnataka were supposed to fight and die when the war begins.
    The Aichatra Madasthana was a city at Uttarkhand then under Nepal. Ahichatram is the present day Rampur in the Uttarkhand. The Ahichatram was a Naga kingdom whose king sold Nagas as hereditary bonded slaves. Each four hundred of these Nagas were led by a Ahichatram/Nepalese Brahmin. Nambudiris and Shivally Brahmins are the Ahichatram Brahmins. Bunts or Buntaru fought for various kingdoms of Karnataka .

    http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=838

    http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=863

    The Cochin king wore only a towel like cloth around his waist and his Nayar army had only a loin cloth when Portuguese arrived in 1498.

    After 1310 Kerala had been occupied by Tulu tribes with the Bunt surnames ( Nayara Menava Kuruba and Samantha). Among which Samanthas were the rulers.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bunt_(community)

    The Bunts were primitive compared the the advanced Chera and Pandyan kingdom. The alliance of Bunts with the European Colonial rulers made them immensly rich. Most of the Tamil tribes disappeared including the Villavar Nadalvar people.

    The Christian missionaries of German origin started studying encouraging the Tulu Sanskrit Malayalam of Nambudiris while discouraging Malayanma the native Tamil like language of Villavars.

    The Villavar Nadar people were reduced to the level of Slavery under the European colonial rule which lasted for 449 Years.

    The Europeans pretended to protect the Nadars in the 19th century while actually siding with the Matriarchal Bunt/Nair kingdoms.
    Believing that Nadars converted to Christianity and thus alienating themselves from their ancient links to the Tamil Kingdoms.
    Nadars and other true Dravidian people had to endure the Colonial rule of British for more than 150 years. They became free only after the Briish left India.
    Even today the Americans and European SCHOLARS (though often they dont know a single word of Dravidian language) come here to write the ancient Dravidian history. In the Western conception the Sangham Era used to be dominated by Nambudiri
    Christians from Ahichatram ( Though Nambudiris in reallife actually migrated to Tulunadu only after 345 AD and appeared in Kerala only in the 8th century after the Chalukya attack ) converted by Saint Thomas himself.

    Nadars should not forget their Villavar Nadalvar origins. They should see through the Euroepean conspiracy. Otherwise they will meet the same fate as the Tamil Villavar people of kerala.

  4. Nambudiris claim that Parasurama created Kerala and gave it to King Banu Vikrama. However none of the Sangam Literature or inscriptions from Tamil Chera period prior to 1310 ever mentioned the Parasurama legend or the installation of Banu Vikrama as King of Kerala. But the Nambudiri written Keralolpathy and Kerala Mahatmiyam are not completely fictional. Nambudiris and Nairs migrated from Ahichatram (Rampur) in the Uttarkhand in 345 AD to Kadamba kingdom in Karnataka. The Parasurama legend comes from Uttarkhand. Keralolpathy confuses the rulers of Uttarpradesh and Tulunadu with Cheraman Perumals. Infact Keralolpathy talks more of Tulunadu and Ahichatram and not even one name of any Tamil Chera ruler is mentioned. Keralolpathy is the history of the Bunt/Nairs and their migration to Kerala through Tulunadu.

    Ay Kingdom and Chera Kingdom were of the Tamils and the Chera kingdom was part of medival Tamilakam. Chera kings were Villavars and supported by supporting Villavar clans called Villavar Vanavar and Malayar.The Chera-Ay Kings never followed Matriarchy or Polyandry. Kulasekhara Alwar the founder of the latter Chera kingdom at 800 AD called himself Villavar Kon in his Tamil work Perumal Thirumozhi. Chera flag displayed the Bow and arrow insignia of the Villavar Tamils.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villavar

    Tulunadus Alupas Kingdom were the enemies of the Chera Kingdom. Tulu Nadu had Matriarchy from fourth century onwards. Alupas Pandyan kingdom was an offshoot of Madurai Pandyan Kingdom and had Double Fish as emblem. Alupas (Alupa + Arasu) Pandyan Kingdom was ruled by Nadavas (Nadalvar). Nadavas relied on the Buntaru, the slaves brought from Ahichatram in warfare. Some of the Tulu Pandyan clans had adopted Matriarchy of their slaves. Now Nadavas are a suclan of their former slaves the Bunts.
    http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=838
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bunt_(community)
    Tulunadu Gramapaddathi mention Kadamba King Mayaravarma brought Naga slaves from Ahichatram a Naga kingdom at Uttranchal at the Indo-Nepalese border in 345 AD. Naga were hereditary bonded slaves called Buntaru in Karnataka . Since the the Nagas from Ahichatra Madasthana (Rampur in Uttarkhand) were not allowed to marry and have families a system of Matriarchy existed among them. Ahichatram king despatched Naga slaves under Brahmin (Tulu Brahmin/Nambudiri) leadership. Various subcastes of the Tulunadus Bunt (community) such as
    Samantha Nayara Menava Kuruba appeared in Kerala after the fall of Chera Dynasty in 1102. Samanthas a subcaste of Tulunadus Bunt (community) were petty chieftains in Karnataka and of Ahichatram/Nepal origin. Bunt/Nairs were employed by Kadamabs, Alupas, Rasthrakutas and Chalukya kings as slave warriors.
    Ahichatram in Uttarkhand

    Keralolpathy mentions mentions the invasion of Kerala by a Tulu prince of Alupas Pandyan kingdom called Kulasekhara. Kulasekhara was the brother of Tulu king Kavi Raja Singhan (Kavi Alupendra (1100 to 1140 AD) and ruler of a principality called Manna Nadu in Tulu Nadu.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alupas
    Banavasi the Kadamba Capital

    Kulasekara invaded Kerala with large Nair army of 350000 strong led by General Pada Mala Nair. The Tulu Alupas prince invaded Kerala with the support of the Arabs then becoming prominent and succeeded in ending the Tamil Chera Kingdom in 1102. Kulasekhara had married two princesses from north India one from Vellala(Bunt/Nair) and a Kshatriya ladies. Kulasekhara established a Matriarchal kingdom at Valapattam Kannur. Kulasekhara called himself Cheraman Vadakkan Perumal. Kulasekahra was also called Banapperumal an Alupas title. Padamala Nair the General of this Tulu Cherman Vadakkan Perumal (Ezhibooban or Banapperumal ) had an affair with the Queen and was executed by Kulasekhara. Kulasekhara ruled for a brief period between 1102 to 1130 AD. However facing opposition from the Tamil Villavar people Kulasekhara self exiled himself to Asu (Arabia). The son of the Kulasekhara was Karipathu Kovilakathu Udayavarman Kolathiri. Kulasekhara crowned Udayavarman Kolathiri as the king of Ezhimala (Mooshaka Kingdom). Thus the Matriarchal Kolathiri dynasty evolves from a Tulu Alupas invader called Kulasekhara and Padamala Nair. The Samantha Bunt/Nair chieftains became the ruling class in the Kokathiri kingdom . The former Nepalese slaves thus elevated to rulership called themselves Samantha (equal to) kings.

    After the fall of Later Chera kingdom in 1102 Kerala became the integral part of Madurai Pandyan Kingdom which lasted till 1310 AD.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandyan_Dynasty
    Meen Kodi of Pandyans

    Kerala Under Pandyans in the 13th century.
    The last Tamil Chera king Ramavarma Kulasekhara migrated to Venad and the Cheras mixed with the Ays to form the Chera-Ai kingdom (1102-1314 AD). Ravivarma Kulasekhara was the last great Tamil king who ruled Kerala and Tamil Nadu who because of his Pandyan mother describes himself Yadukula Ko Maravarmanna Sri Kulaskharan in his Poonamalli inscription at Madras.
    Ravivarma Kulasekharas son Veera Udaya Marthandavarma called himself Veera Pandyan. When the Matriarchal Kolathiri kingdom colluded with the invading armies of Malik Kafur of Delhi Sulthanate the last king Veera Udaya Marthandavarma was forced to abdicate infavour of two Tulu princesses from the Kolathiri Kingdom called Attingal and Kunnumel Ranis.
    After this period only the sons of Attingal queen could become the kings of Venad and Matriarchy became the norm in Travancore. The Travancore Royal family is considered an offshoot of Chirackkal Raja Vamsham of Kolathiris and related to Samantha Bunt/Nairs and Alupas Pandyan kingdom of Tulunadu. After 1310 a Tulu-Nepalese dynasty which evolved from the Buntaru brought from Ahichatram became the rulers of Travancore. After the defeat of Pandyan Kingdom all the Keralas ruling dynasties are from Samantha Bunt/Nairs. Travancore dynasty relied on frequent adoptions from Kolathiri kingdom when there was any dispute in succession. At 1663 two princes called Ravi Varma Aditya Varma from Cochins Bunt/Nair Kingdom were adopted to Travancore dynasty who ruled till 1677. Marthanda Varma himself an adoption from Kolathiri Kingdom.
    Because of their Ahichatra /Uttranchal and Nepalese descend the latterday kings of Venad were fair with slightly mongoloid features. In this period between 1310 to 1800 Tamil gradually lost its importance while the Tulu dynasties preferred Tulu writing system.
    http://www.boloji.com/index.cfm?md=Content&sd=Articles&ArticleID=863
    Matriarchy a custom of Himalyas was carried by Nairs from Nepal to Kerala. In the Northern Kerala Matriarchy suddenly appeared at 1320s (Because of large scale Bunt migration). Nair women courted multiple men and allotted time for each men. Southern Nair women married multiple brothers (Pandavacharam ).
    A Survey of Kerala History Page 229
    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=LFy4pWUlnfwC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=cochin+mestizo&source=bl&ots=e1bN0D_gUy&sig=spLyZ08rSoQJu-RXJp0rbgagj0I&hl=en&sa=X&ei=l-EfUYbLOM7LrQfkvoFY&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%20%20mestizo&f=false
    Matriarchy or Polyandry was never followed by Villavars or any Dravidian people.

    The Nair feudal aristorcracy called themselves Mada Nambis after Ahichatra Madasthana. Since the Samathan Nair rulers descended from former Nepalese slaves Nambudiris their former masters called them Sudras. Samanthan Nair rulers were required to perform Hiranya Garbha ceremony to elevate themselves to Kshatriyahood. Tamil rulers never performed this ceremony. Travancores Bunt/Nair kings in the 18th century performed the Hiranya Garbha ceremony and elevated themselves to the level of tulu Brahmins. After Hiranya Garbha ceremony they were called Thiruvalla Desathu Pothimar.

    A small subgroup from the old Venad kingdom called Jayasimha Nadu (Mulli Nadu) still had Tamil titles and ruled from Kalakkkadu and Cheranmadevi in Tamil Nadu and perhaps practiced Patrilineal descendency. Boothala Veera Sri Veera Udaya Marhanda Varma who ruled from Kalakkad in Thirunelveli District was called Ventu Mankonda Boothala Veeran and also Puli Marthandan. These last remnants of Tamil Venad Dynasty ruled from Kalakkad and Cheranmadevi till 1535 AD when a Pandian prince called Sri Vallabhan defeated and assimilated their territories. Thus the Tamil Chera-Ai Dynasty ended in Thirunelvel. Thrippapur Mootha Thiruvady and Chirava Moopar are the titles of Tami Chera-Ai rulers.
    Cheran Mahadevi and Kalakkad Venad Tamil dynasty
    The Villavar people declined after the European colonisers came. The Portuguese formed a Villavar Vattom Kingdom in the 16th century Cochin but they succeeded in converting the Villarvattom (Belarte in Portuguese documents) King to Christianity. Vallikkada Panickars formed an army which fought for Portuguese. The formation of a Mestizo community (Mestizo Castizo and Topazi ) in the 16th century and the occupation of cultivable land by these Mestizos under the European tutelage all led to the decline of Tamil people. Christianity became a major religion in Kerala in the sixteenth century Kerala after Portuguese and Middle eastern mixed Mestizo people appeared in Kerala. Chavittu Natakam, based on Koothu sampradayam of Tamil Nadu became the major art form of Kerala Christians for almost five hundred years.
    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=LFy4pWUlnfwC&pg=PA114&lpg=PA114&dq=cochin+mestizo&source=bl&ots=e1bN0D_gUy&sig=spLyZ08rSoQJu-RXJp0rbgagj0I&hl=en&sa=X&ei=l-EfUYbLOM7LrQfkvoFY&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=%20%20mestizo&f=false
    In the 17th century Matriarchal Samantha dynasty under Attingal Queen was the sole dynasty in Travancore. This dynasty has its origins in Ahichatram/Nepal and not ethnically related to any Malayali or Tamil dynasties. Travancores Tulu-Nepalese kings of latterdays had the title Manney Sulthan a title granted by the Delhi Sulthanate. Mannanadu was the original principality of Tulu prince Kulasekhara. Similarly they have a Nepalese title called Samsher Jung. After the British concluded a treaty the Travancore in 1895 AD, Travancore Queens adopted the title Bai indicating their Uttarkhand origins.
    The Tulu-Nepalese dynasties which started with the invasion of Tulu prince Kulasekhara ruled Kerala between 1310 to 1947.

  5. Shanar or Chanar used to be the common name for Nadars. Shanar means Chieftain.
    Shanar Ghaut or Shanar Malai is the ancient hideout of Nadars when the Pandyan Kingdom is attacked. Shanar Malai is situated near Tenkasi the ancient Pandyan Royal house .
    Travancore state Manual page 14.
    http://www.archive.org/stream/travancorestate00aiyagoog#page/n60/mode/2up/search/shanar+
    Nadalvar is the title for the aristocracy of the Villavar people . Nadalvar Nadava Nadar Nattavar and Nattar are some of the varriants.
    Nattavar
    Thrissur Museum contains a Gravestone of a Portuguese Noble man called Felipe Perestrelo da Mesquita from the 16th century erected by his wife Dona Beatriz Natover. Dona Beatriz Natover was a indigenous Malayali woman who had a temple at Kodungaloor the medival capital of Chera Dynasty. Felipe Perestrelo da Mesquita initially was protecting this temple as Vicar and he was also a school teacher Mestre Escola (School master) in the school run by Dona Beatriz Natover. Ultimately Dona Beatriz Natover was converted to Christianity and acquired the Christian name Dona Beatriz. Perhaps she is from the Chera or Pandian aristocracy with title Nadavar of Kerala.

    http://www.himalmag.com/advertise/5131-lost-rulers-of-the-malabar-coast.html
    Tax collectors called Nattavar is mentioned in five inscriptions from Pennai and Gaddilam river valleys at South Arcot under the Vijaya Nagara Naickers in 1572-1573 period.

    PA269&lpg=PA269&dq=nattavar&source=bl&ots=I0OZ2JUwE0&sig=6gvEO-lgRDKUGqWBmSQpRgfE-eM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=p6b1UMKsN4bhlAWWm4H4Bg&ved=0CFQQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q=nattavar&f=false

    Mannargudi inscription at 1239 AD also mention Tax collectors called Nattavars.
    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=2jMg8K5dPZUC&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=nattavar++inscription&source=bl&ots=wRekUTo0mU&sig=xu7DnqF9gZ_LJCEW79Du6Qv8Y4c&hl=en&sa=X&ei=z6f1UJy6O87VkwXp4oGQAQ&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=nattavar%20%20inscription&f=false
    Nattavarof Idaiyaru is mentioned in South Arcot as the heads of Nadu in an inscription dated 1572 to 85.

    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=2H4PGhFB9ScC&pg=PA291&lpg=PA291&dq=nattavar++inscription&source=bl&ots=5fO9GDfHfC&sig=-jBvSageXld_YxcSzygxLPX25PM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=e671ULnECYmkkgWcsICoBA&ved=0CC4Q6AEwADgK#v=onepage&q=nattavar%20%20inscription&f=false
    Thiruvaipadi Nattavar is mentioned in an North Arcot inscription of 1225 AD

    Nadalvar
    Mahavamsa mentions Akalanka Nadalvar who was a general of the Pandyan king who resisted the Sinhalese general Lanka Pura Dandanatha in the civil war at 1167.
    Page 252
    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=8SSA-KGBgWoC&pg=PA252&lpg=PA252&dq=Akalanka+Nadalvar&source=bl&ots=PheXJ2eKSh&sig=ss4C9HVdUznaeyiDJ6SRwKUE4Uk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=i7P1UImzHc7IrQeIpoDICQ&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Akalanka%20Nadalvar&f=false

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lankapura_Dandanatha
    Konga Mangala Nadalvar Kalavandi Nadalvar
    Kilamangala Nadalvar are some other Nadalvars mentioned in the Mahavamsha.

    A252&dq=Akalanka+Nadalvar&source=bl&ots=PheXJ2eKSh&sig=ss4C9HVdUznaeyiDJ6SRwKUE4Uk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=i7P1UImzHc7IrQeIpoDICQ&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Akalanka%20Nadalvar&f=false

    Maran Maravarman Enathi (Eyinan +Athi) Rayar and Vanathi (Vanavan +Athi) Rayar Alwar Sevanthi are some other titles of Nadars. Vanavar and Eyinar are Villavar clans.
    Numerous Pandyan inscriptions mention the titles Maran and Maravarman
    Nammalvar Maran was a Vaishnavaite saint and also a minor prince under the Pandyan king.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nammalvar
    Enathi Nayanar was a Vaishanavaite saint who is mentioned as Ezhakula Sanrar Enathi. Enathi Nayanar was an exponent in Swordsmanship and was the teacher of Martial arts to the princes.
    http://www.shaivam.org/naeenaat.html

    Vanathi Rayars are mentioned as Maveli Vanathi Rayars, Pillai Kulasekhara Vanathi Rayar (Pillai means Prince) who was a vassal of Pandyan king mentioned in Madurai Meenakshi Kshetram inscription (1268) at Ponkunnam in Kerala.
    http://kanjnjirappallikkaran.blogspot.in/2010/12/blog-post.html

    Vellai Nadan inscription of Kallidai Kurichi in 1453 mentions the the banishment of Vellai Nadans during the Vijayanagara Naicker era. About two hundred Vellai Nadans were hanged.
    Perumpattu Sevvanthi Nadan inscription of 1662 at Vikramasingapuram mentions the social antagonism of Vellalas.

  6. Sanarapalayam is a place North of Madras.
    Sanarpalayams are found near Thiruchengode, Perunthurai, Erode, Dharapuram, Gopichetti Palayam at the Northern borders of Pandyan Kingdom. Sanarapalayam suggests military Camps of Sanars. All these Military camps are situated north of the Pandyan Capital Madurai. These could be the position of the last Military camps of Sanars before the Pandyan kingom was defeated in 1310 AD.
    Similarly in the Chola country Sannanallur is found near Nannilam. Sannavur is a place north of the Chola Capital Thanjavur.

  7. Villavan said:

    Sanar Kasu or Villu Kasu

    After the fall of Chera Empire (1102 AD) and the Pandyan Empire(1310) the minting of SANAR KASU or VILLU KASU might have stopped.
    However the Sanar Kasu or Villu Kasu was still in usage even after the fall of Villavar Kingdoms in the fourteenth century. During the Portuguese Era the Venetian Gold Ducats or Sequins were used as a substitute for the Sanar Kasu.
    http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/yw/2002/03/16/stories/2002031600100200.htm
    http://www.indianetzone.com/22/venetian_coins_south_india.htm
    The Venetian sequins displayed St.Mark standing before the Doge, the Venetian Prince and inbetween them was a Cross on the obverse side. On the reverse side of the coin two bow like curved marks were there. British scholors tried to explain why people called it Sanar Kasu because people simply mistook the Doge standing before the cross as a Shanar standing before a Palm tree.
    Edgar Thurston like all the other European reasearchers usually writes about Nadars in a disparaging way. European researcers though lacked knowledge in Dravidian language and culture they were effectively assisted by Madras Brahmins. Edgar Thurston and his assistant Kandur Rangachari mentions about the Shanar Coin and maintains that it was only a Venetian Sequin mistaken for a Sanar Kasu.
    http://books.google.co.in/books?id=Erin3nkU3ZUC&pg=PA367&lpg=PA367&dq=castes+and+tribes++thurston+shanar+coin&source=bl&ots=1L_-BsqgjC&sig=UFOgoo60JcoF9fofcErOlkD5ahY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=PIGFUYb1PMnorAeZhIHwBw&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%20shanar%20coin&f=false
    In the Portuguese Goa Sanar-Kasu was used after 1500s. Perhaps the Goans mistook the Venetian Secchino as a Sanar Kasu too. Though Christians Goans perhaps mistook the cross for a Palm Tree and the Doge standing opposite to St Mark, a Shanar. Hence the Goans called it Shanar Kasu too.
    http://www.ebooksread.com/authors-eng/albert-romer-frey/a-dictionary-of-numismatic-names–their-official-and-popular-designations-hci/page-33-a-dictionary-of-numismatic-names–their-official-and-popular-designations-hci.shtml
    Other explanation is that the Gold Sanar Kasu otherwise called Villu Kasu had been in usage for many thousand years during the Chera Period and had been a major currency in India and people found a substitute for it in the Venetian Sequins.
    In the 19th century when British administration was set up in Thirunelveli a group of Nadars met the Tinnevely collector claiming Royal descent as vanquished Kshatriyas. They claimed that they were the fallen Dravidian Kshatriyas who descended from the Pandyan Cheran and Cholan ie the Tamil Tripartite Kingdoms. Shanar claimed that their ancestors had issued Gold coins called Sanan Kasu. When the Nadar were asked to produce a gold coin they brought a wrong coin ie a Venetian Drachm.
    Nobody has actually seen a Gold Villu Kasu or Sanan Kasu from the Chera Pandyan period. But many Chera Coins with Palm tree and Bow and Arrow emblem of the Villavar people does exist.

  8. Onam festival could be an ancient festival of Villavar-Nadalvar and Bana people. Onam celebrates the return of King Maveli each year.
    Villavar and their other subgroups called Vanavar Malayar and Pazhuvettaraiyar dominated the ancient Dravidian world. Ancient Chera and Pandyan coins had the emblems of Hill (Malayar) Fish (Meenavar) and Bow and Arrow (Villavar).
    Villavars and their sea going cousins Meenavars dominated the Pandyan country. Villavar mixed with Meenavar assumed the title Nadalvar.
    Vanavar or Vanathirayars or Vanathirayars are a subgroup of Villavar people.
    Kanjirappally Madurai Meenakshi temple preserves the Maveli Sasanam which mentions a last Villavar ruler called Pillai (Prince) Kulasekhara Vanathirayar who was a vassal of the Pandyan kingdom. കാഞ്ഞിരപ്പള്ളിയും മാവേലിക്കരയും മാവേലി വാണാദിരായന്
    (പിള്ളൈ കുലശെഖര വാണാദിരായന്) എന്ന
    പാണ്ഡ്യരാജാവിന്റെ(രാജാക്കളുടെ) ഭരണത്തിന് കീഴിലായിരുന്നു
    The Maveli Sasanam belongs to the last dynasty of the Pandyan kingdom. Maveli Kulasekhara Vanathirayar was the contemporary of Pandyan king Maravarman Kulasekharan (1268 AD).
    http://kanjnjirappallikkaran.blogspot.in/2010/12/blog-post.html
    http://www.panoramio.com/photo_explorer#view=photo&position=0&with_photo_id=44789471&order=date&user=3444508&tag=MAVELI%20SASAN
    Nelveli Seeveli Maveli and Maran are the titles of Pandyan kings. While Maveli was the title of the Pandyan Villavar kings.
    Similarly the Northern cousins of the Villavar people were Banas. The Bana kingdom was in the Northern Tamil Nadu with capital at Perumbanappadi near Vellore. Balikula Nadu (Chittor) and Andhrapada, betweenGodavari-Krishna rivers. Bana kings considered themselves to be descendents of Mahabali and had the title Mahabali.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bana_Kingdom
    Iraniyel a place in Kanyakumari could have been the capital of Maveli.
    Banasura the son of Mahabali might have built the Banasura Sagar at Wayanad.
    Vanavarayars the Villavar Chera feudatories had the title Mavali.
    Mahabalipuram and Mavelikkara are name after Mahabali or Maveli too.
    Similarly Thiru Nelveli is named after Nelveli Maran the Pandyan king.
    Madurai Kanchi mentioned Onam celebrations in fourth century Madurai.
    மாயோன் மேய ஓண நல் நாள்,
    கோணம் தின்ற வடு ஆழ் முகத்த,
    சாணம் தின்ற சமம் தாங்கு தடக் கை,
    மறம் கொள் சேரி மாறு பொரு செருவில்,
    மாறாது உற்ற வடுப் படு நெற்றி, 595
    Madurai Kanchi thus mentioned the ONA NAL NAL celebrated in Madurai in the fourth century.
    The defeat of Villavars and establishment of the Naicker rule in the fourteenth century led to the decline of the Tamil festivals such as Onam and Indra Vizha in the Pandyan and Chola kingdoms.
    Kerala was occupied by the Tulu-Nepalese tribes in the fourteenth century ending the Villavar Tamil rule. The last Villavar Chera-Ai rulers changed their capital from Kollam to Southern Tamil Nadu (Kallidaikurichi, Kalakkadu and Cheranmadevi) but were ruling Venad. The Chera-Ai-Maran rulers disappeared from Thirunelveli when the Naicker rule was established in the 1600s. After the 1600s Kerala was dominated by the Tulu-Nepalese rulers who were originally from Ahichatram in Uttranchal. Villavar-Nadalvars were reduced to slavery after this period. But many of the old Tamil customs and festivals still survive in Kerala but not in Tamil Nadu.
    Onam is celebrated Malayalis of the Villavar Kingdom every year.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onam

  9. http://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/chennai/article1339798.ece#.UxN9UPmSyOA This is an article from INDIAN EXPRESS and the person who had written that part of the text book was one JANAKI NAIR! Not at all surprised! What a surname to write text book article on NADARS! Ms Nair should write about her community and their history of 400 years. BLOOD IS ALWAYS THICKER THAN WATER.
    Thanks Babu Jayakumar- you must be a Nadar, to have gently slipped in the writer’s name with her SURNAME. Secondly, Babu appears to be a NADAR- another instance of blood being thicker!

  10. Nadalvan said:

    Malayalam made mandatory for government jobs in Kerala
    Candidates who had not studied Malayalam up to Class X, Class XII or graduation will have to pass the Senior Higher diploma course under the Malayalam Mission after they get appointment.
    The existing provisions of the Kerala Service Rules (KSR) would be applicable to persons belonging to the Tamil and Kannada minority groups. But The Rule X of the KSR has stipulated that members of the Kannada and Tamil minorities need to pass Malayalam exam within 10 years of their joining the service.
    Civil service officers hailing from other States but posted in Kerala are required to pass written and oral tests in Malayalam conducted by the PSC to be considered for increment and promotions.
    This will affect those communities who live in both Tamilnadu and Kerala. Nadars and Pillais will be the worst affected. Many Malayali Nadars have been studying Tamil when they reside in Tamil Nadu. Similarly Nairs and Ezhavas who reside in Kanyakumari Ooty and Neyveli study Tamil. Now they cant get jobs unless they pass the qualifying exam in Malayalam. At least eight percent of Tamil Nadus population have Kerala roots. Now they would find difficult to find Kerala Government jobs. Those with mixed origin cant become a forest guard unless he passes the qualifying exam in Kerala.

    There were two kinds of Languages in Kerala in the beginning of 19th century. One was Malayalam (Malayala Tamil) the majority language. The second one was the Sanskritised language of Nambudiris called Grantha Bhasa written with Tulu script.
    The British colonial rulers managed to ban Malayanma and all its books and started promoting the Grantha Malayalam written with Tulu script.

    The mother tongue of majority of Malyalis used to be a Tamil like language called Malanma (Malayalam-Tamil). Until 19th century most of the Malayalis were using Malanma (Malayalma) which was considered one of the three forms of Tamil Kodunthamil (Tamil, Senthamil and Kodunthamil). Portuguese called this native language of Malayalis Lingua Malabar Tamul. Or Malayala Tamil. This language was devoid of Sanskrit words.
    Malayanma used different writing systems.
    1)Malayanma script was used in southern Kerala which was a derivative of Tamil Vattezuthu
    2)Kolezhuthu or Crown language a system implemented by King Rajaraja Chola
    3)Modern Tamil Script was used by the Keralas Christians until 19th century. Not only Kerala Christians were using Tamil Script they never used Sanskrit or the Modern Tulu-Malayalam script until the British started teaching them in the 19th century.
    Francis White Ellis who studied Malayalma in 1815 considered it as Kodunthamil. Most of the Malayanma books written with Tamil script appear to be Tamil.

    Tulu (Tigalari) script was used by Nambudiris who make hardly 03 percent of Keralas population to write highly Sanskritised works Nambudiris. This language was called Grantha Bhasha and the European Missionaries called it Lingua Samscrudonicam. Grantha Bhasa contained more than 80 percent Sanskrit and 20 percent Malayalam(Tamil). The Tulu script or Tigalari script was used by Nambudiris because they migrated from Ahichatram in Uttarkhand to Tulunadu and then to Kerala in the second millennium. Tigalari script was a variant of Pallava Grantha script. Tigala people were the Karnataka subgroup of Tamil Vanniars. Tigalari was used to write religious books in Karnataka.

    Portuguese in the 16th century initially used Portuguese or Latin Script to write Malayanma of Kerala Christians. Alternating lines of Malaynma and Portuguese language were written.
    This language was then called Lingua Malabar Tamul or Tamil of Malabar (Kerala).
    Then the Kerala Christian works were printed using Tamil Script. The Malayanma-Tamil books were printed from Quilon Angamaly and Thalassery until 19th century.
    Copenhagen copy of Flos Sanctorum was printed using Tamil Script at the Dutch printing press at Ambazhakadu (Ambalacatta) near Angamaly in 1680. Thus Keralas Christians were using a Tamil like language until 19th century. No Modern Malayalam Christian books can be found in Kerala before the British arrival. Kerala Christians were using Tamil predominantly and Suriyani law books and Portuguese books in the early periods until 19th century.

    European colonial rule strengthened the Nepalese tribes from Ahichatram who migrated from Kerala. Matriarchal clans of Kerala with Tulunadu and Nepal/Uttarkhand origin appeared after the attack of Delhi Sulthanate in 1310 AD under Malik Kafur. After this period many of the Tulunadus Bunts subgroups such as Nayara Menava Kuruba and Samantha appeared in Kerala as rulers and Matriarchy hitherto a custom of Nepal and Tulunadu came to Kerala.These Tulu-Nepalese invaders called themselves Madambi or Madanambi after the Ahichatra Madasthana in Uttarkhand from where they migrated to South India. Samantha a Bunt subgroup became the Kings of Kerala after 1300s. Thus Bunt/Nairs of Kerala might have moved from Ahichatra in Uttarkhand and adjoining areas of Nepal as mentioned in the Keralolpathy. Opportunistic European colonial rulers supported them.

    Europeans supported the Tulu-Nepalese dynasty with the mixed blooded Mestizo Christians from 1500s. Thus gradually the language of native Dravidian Malayalis, the Malayanma declined as the Tamil rooted people declined in Kerala. European colonialism banned the native Dravidian Malayalam-Tamil and replaced it with Grantha Malayalam of Nambudiris.

  11. Nadalvan said:

    TAMIL MANDATORY FOR SSLC FROM NEXT ACADEMIC YEAR (2014-15) in Tamil Nadu

    Even if you want to educate your Children in Malayalam just because you are staying inside the boundaries of Tamil Nadu they will be forced to learn Tamil.

    Ideallly the Children should be allowed to study English or any other language as optional subject.
    A Telugu should be allowed to study Telugu and also he should be able to reject Tamil if he does not want to learn it.
    A Keralaite Child should be allowed to study Malayalam and he should not be forced to learn Tamil.

    But in Tamil Nadu it is not going to happen.
    Most of the Tamils are not ethnic Tamils but Tamilised Telugus, Kannadigas, Malayalis,Saurashtras, Maratas etc. Many talk their respective languages at home. But when they come outside their houses they are forced to pretend that they are ethnic Tamils.

    Come 2015-16 academic year, there will not be any non-Tamil category of students in Class X public examination. All the students in Tamil Nadu, who will be sitting for their Class X public examination in 2015-16 academic year, have to study Tamil compulsorily as their first language.

    In June 2006, the State government has enacted Tamil Nadu Tamil Learning Act. As per the act, Tamil was made a compulsory language for Class I for all schools in the State. Though a group of schools moved the Supreme Court challenging the law and praying for the scrapping of the government decision, the petition was dismissed by the apex court.

    “The Tamil Nadu government enacted the Tamil Nadu Tamil Learning Act in 2006. As per the act, Tamil language should be taught as compulsory subject in Class I in all school in 2006. In the subsequent years, it was implemented in the next classes. In the coming academic year, Tamil will be made compulsory language for Class IX and from 2015-16 academic year, Tamil will become compulsory for Class X,” said A Gnanagowri, Coimbatore Chief Educational Officer.

    This was discussed at the School Education department review meeting held in Chennai on Tuesday, headed by Minister KC Veeramani and attended by all higher officials and CEOs of all districts. This was to ensure that schools were informed about this developments and awareness was created among students, said another official.

    CMS Matriculation Higher Secondary School principal H Hajah Sheriff said, “Other than CBSE and ICSE schools, in all other schools where ‘Samacheer Kalvi’ is introduced, Tamil will be made a compulsory subject in Class X in the academic year 2015-16 academic year.”

    “In Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, schools were allowed to have one more additional language paper. We requested Tamil Nadu Government to allow us to have one more language paper as sixth optional subject. The government has assured us of considering our demand,” he added.

    Tamil Nadu Nursery, Primary, Metric Higher Secondary Schools Welfare Association: State General Secretary G Krishnaraj said, “In this year’s Class X exam, three students including one from Coimbatore scored 500 out of 500 marks. But, they were not considered for the State ranking, as they have studied Sanskrit and French as their first language. If Tamil is made as compulsory first language in Class X public examination, such disparity will not arise.”

    http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/tamil_nadu/Tamil-Mandatory-for-SSLC-from-Next-Academic-Year/2014/05/30/article2253191.ece

    • If the Constitutional guarantee is being whittled down by propagating a false theory that the OFFICIAL LANGUAGE of the UNION is the NATIONAL LANGUAGE of INDIA, as a preemptive measure the Regional languages in the States will have to impose such a condition to ensure that the Regional languages do not get swamped through mere numbers. There are three categories of States viz. Hindi speaking states, Hindi knowing states (like Haryana, Rajasthan etc. as they have their own languages yet Hindi being a language akin to their languages and as their languages are not “developed enough”have to accept Hindi. Third is the category of states which do not have most of the sounds of Hindi. This is a structural problem, why make a state learn a language the sounds of which are confusing to them, Tamilnadu falls in this category, TAMIL does not support GLOTTALIZED sounds and Hindi has predominantly glottalized sounds, so why force them to learn Hindi or hoist Hindi as a ‘NATIONAL LANGUAGE” when there is no provision for it and one should never ever forget that in the Constituent Assembly when put to vote, HINDI was rejected 77-77. Unity is more important than hoisting flags which have no functional value.

  12. http://m.huffingtonpost.in/2016/12/20/section-on-nadar-womens-struggle-expunged-from-cbse-textbook/

    Read the last paragraph of the above article. Some NCERT coordinator is supposed to have said that the contents were true, but stand withdrawn.
    The passage is excerpted below:
    The coordinator of the book, Professor Kiran Devendra, reaffirmed that the section is factually correct and there have been no complaints from any child or school teacher regarding the contents.

    Who is this half baked prof kiran devendra? And under what knowledge is he saying that the Nadars are to be projected by a Janaki NAIR’S moronic history based on a terrain which was alien to Nadars?
    Seems to be giving an honourable exit to Janaki Nair, a keralite Jenny ass to get off with a mere rap to her knuckles!
    Time for holding people responsible who write history about other communities, especially text books.

    • This prof kiran devendra who wants either a child or a teacher to object the contents of this despicable text on Nadars by Janaki Nair , is the third in the hierarchy of the Directorate of Elementary Education at ncert! Seems he doesn’t have the powers to review the contents unless objected to by a CHILD! Great!
      God save India !!!!
      At leat this imbecile should have corrected the text by stating that the erstwhile state of Travancore had imposed those sumptuary laws on Nadars within their domain! What a muff this prof appears to be!

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